This visualization from HowtoCook.recipes shows a variety of the different types of food forms that astronauts eat in space. Food that in dehydrated form, foods with low moisture like candies and baked goods, and rehydratable foods like instant mash potatoes are just a few examples.
Astronauts from different parts of the world bring up different foods into orbit. Americans are known for their freeze dried ice cream and South Korean astronauts are known for spending millions of dollars on research so they could get Kimchi to space. More below.